Politeness and Camaraderie: How Types of Form Matter in Indonesian Context

. Jumanto


This article is about politeness and camaraderie through pragmatic viewpoints within Indonesian context. A language, the writer argues, should be directed to politeness (distant language) and camaraderie (close language), the two varieties of language use in some diglossic speech situation. The writer’s arguments are, among others, that distant language is formal, indirect, and non-literal, and that close language is informal, direct, and literal. Distant language is spoken to hearers with power factor, while close language is spoken to hearers with solidarity factor. Ignorance or incompetence of this may cause impoliteness, i.e. rude situations or awkward situations in interpersonal interactions. This tendency elaborates pragmatic viewpointsfrom Goffman’spositive and negative face [1], Brown and Levinson’s positive and negative politeness strategies[2], Renkema’s solidarity and respect politeness[3],Jumanto’s friendship and politeness[4],[5], and types of hearer elaborated by Brown and Gilman[6]and advocated by Jumanto[5]. Examples in the Indonesian language, based on a simple emic research, are given to support the everyday-use-of-Indonesian-language arguments. 


Politeness; camaraderie; impoliteness; distant language; close language; rude situation; awkward situation

Full Text:



Goffman, erving, the presentation of self in everyday life. New york: anchor books, 1959.

Brown, penelope and levinson, stephen c., politeness: some universals in language usage. New york: cambridge university press, 1987.

Renkema, jan, discourse studies: an introductory textbook. Amsterdam: john benjamins publishing company, 1993.

Jumanto, jumanto, phatic communication among english native speakers. Semarang, indonesia: worldpro publishing, 2008.

Jumanto, jumanto, pragmatics: linguistic world is broad. Semarang, indonesia: worldpro publishing. , 2011.

Brown, roger and gilman, albert, "the pronouns of power and solidarity," in readings in the sociology of language, j. A. Fishman, ed. The hague: mouton & co. N.v. publishers, 1968, p. 252–275.

Holloway, immy, basic concepts for qualitative research . Oxford: blackwell science ltd., 1997.

Hammersley, martyn and atkinson, paul, ethnography: principles in practice, 2nd ed. London: tavistock, 1995.

Strauss, anselm and corbin, juliet, basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. California: sage publications , 1990.

Silverman, david, doing qualitative research: a practical handbook. London: sage publications , 2000.

Austin, john l., how to do things with words. Oxford: oxford university press, 1957.

Malinowski, bronislaw, "the problem of meaning in primitive languages," in the meaning of meaning. London, c. K. Ogden and i. A. Richards, eds. London: k. Paul, trend, trubner, 1923, pp. 296-336.

Mey, jacob l., pragmatics: an introduction, 2nd ed. Oxford: blackwell., 2001.

Thomas, jenny, meaning in interaction: an introduction to pragmatics. London: longman, 1996.

Bühler, karl, theory of language: the representational function of language. Amsterdam: john benjamins publishing co, 1918.

Morris, charles w., signs, language, and behavior. New york : prentice-hall , 1946, vol. Morris, charles, 1946, signs, language, and behavior, new york: prentice-hall.

Bloomfield, leonard, language. New york: allen & unwin, 1933.

Fries, charles c., "review of grammatical analysis," in language, 1979, pp. 907-11.

Chomsky, noam, aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge: mit press, 1950.

Searle, john r., speech acts. Cambridge: cambridge university press , 1965.

Richards, jack c., et al., longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics . Essex: longman, 1985.

Cobuild cobuild english dictionary. 2003.

Schiffrin, deborah, approaches to discourse . Cambridge: blackwell publishers, 1994.

Jumanto, jumanto, "discourse analysis and ideology critics," in lingua komunika. Semarang, indonesia: university of 17 august 1945 , 2011.

Jumanto, jumanto, "language of advertising: an ideology critic," in languages and science (bip). Semarang, indonesia: akaba 17 semarang , 2010.

Hornby, albert sidney, oxford advanced learner’s dictionary of current english . Oxford: oxford university press, 1987.

Cald cambridge advanced learner’s dictionary. 2008.

Leech, geoffrey, principles of pragmatics. New york: longman group limited. , 1983.

Gunarwan, asim, "articles on loose papers in phd study classes, university of indonesia," university of indonesia papers, 2005.

Jumanto, jumanto, "pragmatics and character language building," in the 58th teflin international conference on language teaching and character building, semarang, indonesia, indonesia , 2011, p. 329–340.

Jumanto, jumanto, "teaching a character bipa (indonesian for non-native speakers) ," in the 2012 kipbipa viii-asile international conference , salatiga, indonesia, 2012, pp. 1-20.

Spencer-oatey, helen d.m., "cross-cultural politeness: british and chinese conceptions of the tutor-student relationship ," unpublished phd thesis , lancaster university , lancaster, 1992.

Lakoff, robin t., talking power: the politics of language in our lives. Glasgow: harpercollins, 1990.

Fraser, bruce and nolen, william, "the association of deference with linguistic form," international journal of the sociology of language , no. 27, pp. 93-109, 1981.

Gu, yueguo, "politeness phenomena in modern chinese," journal of pragmatics , vol. 14 , pp. 237-257, 1990.

Ide, sachiko, "formal forms and dicernment: two neglected aspects of universals of linguistic politeness," multilingua , vol. 8 , pp. 2-3;223-248, 1989.

Blum-kulka, shoshana, "the metapragmatics of politeness in israeli society," in politeness in language: studies in its history, theory, and practice, s. I. K. E. Richard watts, ed. Berlin: mouton de gruyter, i992.

Arndt, horst and janney, richard w., "politeness revisited: cross-modal supportive strategies," international review of applied linguistics in language teaching , vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 281-300, 1985.

Watts, richards, "relevance and relational work: linguistic politeness as politic behavior," multilingua, vol. 8 , no. 2-3, pp. 131-166, 1989.

Gunarwan, asim, "implicatures of linguistic codes selection in some dialogues of ludruk," pellba, vol. 14, 2001.

Grice, paul, "logic and conversation," syntax and semantics, vol. 3, no. Speech acts, 1975.

Goffman, erving, interaction ritual: essays on face to face behavior. New york: anchor books, 1967.

Axtell, roger e., do’s and taboos of using english around the world. New york: john wiley & sons, inc. , 1995.

Beaugrande, robert de, text, discourse, and process: toward a multidisciplinary science of texts. London: longman, 1980.

Axtell, roger e., do’s and taboos of using english around the world. New york: john wiley & sons, inc, 1995.

Carter, ronald et al., working with texts: a core book for language analysis. London: routledge, 1997.

Chaika, elaine, language: the social mirror. Rowley: newbury house publishers, inc, 1982.

Cook, guy, discourse. Oxford: oxford university press, 1989.

Coupland, justine, small talk. Harlow: pearson education limited, 2000.

Saussure, ferdinand de, pengantar linguistik umum . Yogyakarta, indonesia: yogyakarta: gadjah mada university press, 1916.

Eastman, carol m., aspects of language and culture. San fransisco: chandler & sharp publishers, inc, 1975.

Eelen, gino, a critique of politeness theories. Manchester: st. Jerome publishing, 2001.

Fairclough, norman, language and power . London: longman, 1989.

Fisher, aubrey and adams, katherine l., interpersonal communication: pragmatics of human relationships . New york: mcgraw-hill, inc, 1987.

Halliday, michael a.k., explorations in the functions of language. London: edward, 1978.

Halliday, michael a.k., "language structure and language function," in new horizons in linguistics, j. Lyons, ed. Harmondsworth: penguin, 1970.

Halliday, michael a.k., language as sosial semiotic .London : edward arnold, 1978 .

Halliday, michael a.k. and hasan, ruqaiya, cohesion in english .London : longman group ltd., 1976.

Haugen, einar, the ecology of language .Stanford : stanford university press , 1972.

Holmes, janet, an introduction to sociolinguistics .London : longman group ltd. , 1992 .

Hudson, rodney a., sociolinguistics , 2nd ed. Cambridge: cambridge university press., 1996.

Hinkel, eli, culture in second language teaching and learning . Cambridge: cambridge university press, 1999.

Hymes, dell, "models of the interaction of language and social setting," journal of social issues , vol. 23 , no. Problems of bilingualism , pp. 8-28, 1967.

Hymes, dell, "the ethnography of speaking," in readings in the sociology of langauge, j. Fishman, ed. The hague: mouton, 1968.

Hymes, dell, "on communicative competence," in sociolinguistics, j. B. Pride and j. Holmes, eds. Harmondsworth : penguin books, 1972.

Hymes, dell, foundations in sociolinguistics. Philadelphia: university of pennsylvania press, 1974.

Innis, robert e., semiotics: an introductory anthology . Bloomington: indiana university press. , 1985.

Jakobson, roman, "concluding statement: linguistics and poetics," in style in language , t. Sebeok, ed. Cambridge: mit press, 1960, pp. 350-377.

Johnson, keith and johnson, helen, encyclopedic dictionary of applied linguistics. Oxford : blackwell publishers, 1999.

Kramsch, claire, language and culture. Oxford: oxford university press, 1998.

Jumanto, jumanto, "phatic communication among english native speakers," university of indonesia dissertation, 2006.

Guendouzi, J., "negotiating socialized gender identity in woman’s time-out talk," an unpublished phd thesis , university of wales , cardiff , 1998.

Kridalaksana, harimurti, "pengantar ilmiah: dari fungsi fatis ke ungkapan fatis," in ungkapan fatis dalam pelbagai bahasa, h. Sutami, ed. Jakarta: university of indonesia, 2004.

Lacoste, m., "doctor-patient language," in the concise encyclopedia of pragmatics , j. L. Mey, ed. Amsterdam : elsevier science ltd., 1998, pp. 266-269.

Lincoln, yvonna s. And guba, egon g., naturalistic inquiry. Sage: beverly hills, 1985.

Manchester, martin l., the philosophical foundations of humboldt’s linguistic doctrines. Amsterdam: john benjamins publishing company, 1985.

Marino, m., "irony," in the concise encyclopedia of pragmatics , j. L. Mey, ed. Amsterdam: elsevier science ltd. , 1998, pp. 409-412.

Nunan, david, introducing discourse analysis. London: the penguin group, 1993.

Economist, the, "obituary: allen read," the economist, oct. 2002 .

Ogden, charles kay and richards, ivor armstrong, the meaning of meaning. London: k. Paul, trend, trubner, 1923.

O’sullivan, tim, key concepts in communication and cultural studies. London : routledge, 1994.

Recanati, francois, meaning and force. Cambridge: cambridge university press , 1988 .

Richards, jack c. At al., interchange: english for international communication. Cambridge: cambridge university press, 1990.

Robinson, william pter, language and social behaviour . Harmondsworth : penguin , 1972 .

Samarin, william j., ilmu bahasa lapangan. Yogyakarta, indonesia: kanisius, 1988.

Saville-troike, muriel, the ethnography of communication: an introduction, 3rd ed. Oxford: blackwell publishing ltd., 2003.

Simpson, james m. Y., "ecology of language," in the concise encyclopedia of pragmatics, j. L. Mey, ed. Amsterdam : elsevier science ltd. , 1998, p. 272.

Stewart, john and logan, carole, together: communicating interpersonally. New york: mcgraw-hill, inc., 1975.

Sutami, hermina, "ungkapan fatis dalam pelbagai bahasa," pusat leksikologi dan leksikografi, fakultas ilmu pengetahuan budaya, universitas indonesia seminar papers, 2004.

Thompson, linda, children talking: the development of pragmatic competence. London: multilingual matters publisher , 1997.

Van dijk, teun a., explorations in the semantics and pragmatics of discourse. Essex: longman group ltd. , 1977.

Vasconcelos, w. W., "electronic mail communication," in the concise encyclopedia of pragmatics, j. L. Mey, ed. Amsterdam: elsevier science ltd., 1998, pp. 278-280.

Wardhaugh, ronald, an introduction to sociolinguistics, 4th ed. Malden: balckwell publishers inc. , 2002.

Verschueren, jef, understanding pragmatics. London: arnold, 1999.

Yule, George, Pragmatics. Singapore: National Institute of Education, 1998.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Conference on Education and Language (ICEL)
Bandar Lampung University
ISSN: 2303-1417